Problem: In 1999 when Nigeria returned to democratic rule, it had been perceived as the most corrupt or 2nd most corrupt country in the world for 4 years in a row. This trend continued until 2004.
- Establishment of the Independent Corrupt Practices Commission (ICPC) in 2000
- Establishment of the Economic and Financial Crimes Commission (EFCC) in 2000
- Setting up of the Nigeria Financial Intelligence Unit (NFIU)
- Establishment of the Nigeria Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (NEITI) in 2000
- Bureau of Public Procurement (BPP) in 2007
- The strengthening of the Code of Conduct Bureau
- Freedom of Information Act 2011
- Pension Reform Acts 2004 and 2014
- Petroleum Industry Bill
- Committee on Verification and Reconciliation of Fuel Subsidy Payments, 2012
- Presidential Committee on Ports Monitoring 2011.
Main Achievements: In a period of over a decade, Nigeria witnessed a major improvement in Transparency International’s Corruption Perception Index (CPI) ranking from being the second most corrupt country in 1999 to the 33rd most corrupt in 2013. Again, the Economic and Financial Crimes Commission (EFCC) and the Independent Corrupt Practices and Other Related Offences Commission (ICPC) have jointly recovered more than ₦600 billion and obtained more than 800 convictions. Furthermore, there was the discovery and prosecution of huge pension frauds and oil subsidy scams. In 2014 the Commission had filed 365 cases, charged to court 691 people and secured several convictions.
Key Challenges: Public perception is that the anti-corruption efforts have waned in the last few years and that there is political interference in some anti-corruption agencies. Long delays in the prosecution of cases of high profile political corruption equally exist, and this leads to public loss of confidence in the system. Although the reality is different from the perception, there is a need for the anticorruption agencies to better inform the public about their efforts in order to counter negative and uninformed perceptions. There is also the worry that lack of resources could undermine the operational activities of anti- corruption agencies.
Reference: Public Service Reforms in Nigeria (1999-2014) - A Comprehensive Review
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